Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

2 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.



In the operation of water distribution networks in cities, leakage from pipes always causes problems for human health and for the environment. Leakage openings in pipes may exist in different shapes. Circular holes are common in corroded and punched pipes. In the leakage studies, the area of these openings is usually assumed to be fixed and the leakage exponent is about 0.5. In this study, an analytical equation has been presented with two purposes. First, Examining the changes in the leak area and leakage exponent of circular holes. Second, providing an equation that contains more parameters than the general leakage equations. By using such an equation, the accuracy of leakage estimation is increased due to the direct involvement of the effective parameters. Also, for the possibility of modeling different leakage equations, including the present equation, a new hydraulic analysis model has been developed. This model tries to improve leakage modeling by including more capabilities than the existing hydraulic analysis models. Results showed that the leak area in circular holes is not fixed and changes due to different parameters. Comparison of the present equation and the orifice equation showed a significant difference which confirms that the orifice equation cannot be always used for circular leaks. In the study of leakage exponent, it was found that for polyethylene pipes, the leakage exponent is higher than value of 0.5 mentioned in the other studies and it can take different values depending on the leakage position in the network. Increasing the hole diameter did not affect the leakage exponent, but increased the leakage coefficient. On the other hand, for steel pipes, the leakage coefficient was fixed and the exponent remained around 0.5. Finally, the results showed the usefulness of the developed hydraulic analysis model for implementing the scenarios defined in this study.


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